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EMC/EMI chokes

Current-compensated chokes are used to attenuate common-mode or asymmetric (P/N –> E) interference signals by being connected in series with the phase and neutral lines of an AC power line input. The magnetic fields produced by this winding technique cancel each other out. Full inductance is only presented to interference signals that flow asymmetrically from phase/neutral to earth.

Selection of discrete EMC/EMI chokes with various inductance and current ratings allows optimized circuitry for EMC compliance to be designed easily and economically.

PCB filters

Very compact EMI suppression components can directly be mounted on printed circuit boards of low-power office, medical, telecom and IT equipment, DC/DC converters and power supplies etc. Ideal low cost solution for manufacturers who have planned for EMC compliance throughout the equipment design process already.

IEC inlet filters

IEC inlet filters with a standard IEC connector are a practical solution when you need to meet the equirements of different country-specific mains plugs. The EMC filter function protects your system and suppresses EMI noise while the IEC connector allows you to equip your system with a standard connector to fit country-specific mains cords. The compact dimensions and supplementary options, such as a mains switch, fuse holder or voltage selector, offer numerous advantages to the user. IEC inlet filters are used in a broad variety of applications, typically in conjunction with a power supply. IEC inlet filters with an integrated voltage selector allow country-specific voltages to be selected in linear power supply designs.

Single-phase filters

These are the key element in eliminating system-generated and mains-borne interference. One of the biggest advantages of using a single-phase filter is the rapid availability of the associated safety approvals.

Single-phase filters are used in a wide range of applications, such as control panels, systems, equipment and apparatus, together with power supplies or other electrical functions.

Three-phase filters

EMC/EMI filter solutions for industrial applications like motor drives and machine tools. Furthermore, these types of filters are also suitable for mainframe computer systems, large uninterruptible power supplies, medical equipment, wind turbine power stations and a vast array of other three-phase power electronics.

Three-phase and neutral line filters are a compact solution for the interference suppression on the mains input of cabinets and control units of equipment, ranging from industrial applications like machine tools to sensitive medical installations. These typically involve separate and often insufficiently filtered frequency inverters and SMPS, causing current imbalance and significant interference problems. As individual elements they may be interference-suppressed already. The conjunction of several switching components in the same cabinet and a non-EMC conscious cabling will rise the demand for an additional EMC/EMI filter on the mains input of the whole installation. Many times this is the only way to get the CE mark for the cabinet in accordance with the EMC directive.

Feedthrough components

Feedthrough capacitors and filters providing interference suppression up into the GHz range for high-tech applications such as IT, telecom, server and networking equipment. Feedthrough capacitors and filters also improve the security of communications and prevent information in higher frequency signals from leaving the room via the mains or power line.

Sinusoidal filter (or LCL filter)

A three-phase pulsed AC voltage can be measured at the output of the inverter bridge. As already mentioned in the previous chapters, a pulsed signal cannot just be connected to any public low-voltage network as it is. The LC sinusoidal filter or the LCL filter comes into use here. Its main task is to smoothen the pulsed output signal in order to supply power to the network that is as low in harmonics as possible. The LC or LCL filter can be understood as a network decoupling in the broadest meaning of the term, with the help of which the inverter and hence the entire solar plant becomes network-compatible.

 

EMC/EMI chokes

EMI suppression components

Source: Murata

EMC/EMI chokes. High performance EMI Filters by using new ceramic materials and process technologies.

Source: Murata

EMI suppression components.

Common mode chokes

EMC filters

Source: Murata

Common mode chokes/SMD version. High rated current common mode choke coil family reduces footprint of automotive grade common mode choke coils.

Source: TDK Electronics

EMC filters for power engineering offer current capabilities of several 100 A. Typical representatives for the interference suppression of signal lines are CAN bus chokes.

EMC/EMI chokes

EMC cores and chokes

Source: Schaffner

EMC/EMI chokes.

Source: Vacuumschmelze

EMC cores and chokes.

SAW components

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) components, integrated radio frequency modules and microwave ceramic filters are key components of modern information and communications. They select frequencies and have a crucial impact on signal quality in mobile phones as well as in audio and TV equipment, for example. SAW-based applications are steadily catching on in automotive electronics and industrial electronics as well.

Discrete SAW filters

The most important applications of these RF filters include transmit and receive systems of mobile phones, where they allow telephony in various standards such as UMTS and GSM. They also perform additional key functions in mobile phones such as navigation, radio and TV reception as well as Internet access via wireless LANs.

Mobile phones are increasingly becoming multifunctional terminals offering a wide range of new applications while retaining their conveniently compact dimensions. Users of high-end mobile phones expect them to operate without problems everywhere, meaning that they must support several mobile phone standards and thus be multimode and multiband-capable. Despite their increasing number of functions, however, these phones can only retain their compact size if their electronic components and modules become ever smaller or have ever more functions integrated in them.

Multimedia is another application area for discrete SAW filters: they help to determine the picture and sound quality in TV sets, set-top boxes for cable and satellite reception of TV programs as well as DVD and hard disk recorders. But discrete SAW filters and resonators are also used in vehicles, for instance in radio-based remote keyless entry, tire-pressure monitoring, and satellite navigation systems. Discrete SAW filters are also used in industrial electronics applications like wireless machine-to-machine communication or automated wireless electricity meter reading.

Discrete SAW filters are manufactured in various package types depending on their intended purpose. Plastic packages are used for multimedia filters, whereas ceramic packages are ideal for manufacturing filters in automotive electronics systems and equipment. Chip-sized SAW package (CSSP®) technology is used in mobile phone applications, allowing the manufacture of greatly miniaturized products.

Combined filter products

Filter products can be further miniaturized by combining several filter functions in a single component in a space-saving way. They include the 2in1 filters as well as the duplexers used particularly in UMTS mobile phones. Transmit and receive filters are combined in these components, thus allowing simultaneous transmission and reception of radio signals. Bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) filters are used for the transmit path in addition to SAW filters. BAW-SAW duplexers integrate the benefits of these two filter technologies in a single component.

Modules

The degree of miniaturization is increased still further by integrating discrete filters and duplexers in RF modules. These key components are manufactured customer- and application-specific. Compared to discrete solutions, manufacturers of mobile phones can save up to 90 percent space when placing modules on the circuit board. The use of ceramic multilayer technology as the integration platform, allows dozens of functions to be combined in a single module. Amplifiers and switches can be integrated in addition to several filters. A multilayer low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) acts as the substrate. The functions of passive electronic components such as capacitors, inductors and varistors are embedded between the layers.

1-saw-filters-for-automotive 2-saw-baw 3-wlan-bluetooth

Source: TDK Electronics

SAW filters feature greatly reduced tolerance around the center frequency and ultra-wide band characteristics. They are mounted on a quartz substrate in hermetically sealed ceramic packages.

Source: TDK Electronics

Compact SAW-BAW duplexers combine transmit and receive filters for simultaneous transmission and reception within a specific frequency band and are available for almost all W-CDMA bands.

Source: TDK Electronics

In addition to sophisticated filters, WLAN/Bluetooth front-end module incorporates semiconductor components such as power amplifiers and switches, matching and bias networks, baluns and ESD protect

4-a-Murata-SAW-Filter-web 5-b-Murata-Filters-web 6-c-Murata-Module2-web

Source: Murata

SAW Filters. SAW filters for communication equipment with high power capability.

Source: Murata

Filter Products. Using unique ceramic material and high-frequency technology - miniaturized SAW filters, dielectric filters, LC filters, Antennas/Duplexers for communication equipment.

Source: Murata

Modules. Bluetooth, W-LAN and FM module whose high levels of integration and tiny dimensions will enable footprint savings in mobile devices such as e-readers and web tablets.

 FN 5040HV-260-99 schwarz low 8-d-Murata-Module3-web  FN 2200 black low 2

Source: Schaffner

Sinusoidal filter (or LCL filter)

Source: Murata

Source: Schaffner

Single-phase filters

Resistors are the most common passive electrical components. A resistor resists or limits the flow of electric current in a circuit. There are many uses for resistors: they are used to drop voltage, limit current, attenuate signals, act as heaters, act as fuses, furnish electrical loads and divide voltages.

Non-linear resistors

Non-linear resistors, i.e. thermistors and varistors have been playing a major role in the history of electrical engineering. Technologically, they are based on intensive research into ceramic materials and the fact that additives and special mixtures can significantly change the electrical and thermal properties of the ceramic material.

PTC thermistors and varistors

PTC (positive temperature coefficient) thermistors perform several functions in electronics – one of them is heating. In motor vehicles for instance, they provide additional heating in heat exchangers, protect wiper nozzles from freezing and prevent diesel fuel from becoming viscous. Their safety properties are particularly important. As PTC heating elements are self-regulating, they cannot overheat like heating wires and cause fires. What’s more, their ceramic material can be made in almost any shape.

As the resistance of PTC thermistors rises with temperature, they are ideal protective components for power supplies. Thermally coupled with power semiconductors, they limit control currents if overheating is imminent and thus protect the entire unit against damage or destruction. They are also used as sensors in a wide variety of designs and complete with terminals, e.g. as limit value sensors for overflow protection of tanks filled with liquids such as fuel or beverages.

Varistors for overvoltage and ESD protection are found throughout electronics and electrical engineering. They protect high-voltage grids just as reliably as automotive electronic networks, telecom equipment and computers. Despite the large quantities of energy that they may have to absorb in an emergency, even heavy-duty varistors can be made in more and more compact designs. Multilayer varistors and integrated products

Thanks to the ongoing development of multilayer ceramic technology, varistors can be made even smaller and new and integrated products can be realized. The evolution of multilayer varistors lead among others to CeraDiodes®, varistor arrays and ESD/ EMI modules. They are used throughout mobile and consumer electronics as well as in data systems. Complete dual PI filters with integrated varistors likewise offer more customer benefits.

NTC thermistors

NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistors are virtually unbeatable when it comes to accurate temperature measurement. They are made of ceramic materials whose resistance falls as temperature rises. Depending on the ceramic mixture, the R/T curve is approximately linear across certain temperature ranges, making NTC thermistors ideal for almost every application where temperatures have to be measured or monitored. They measure the operating temperatures of coolant and oil in motor vehicles. They are located in the control unit of the air conditioning system, or alert the driver if the outside temperature drops below freezing. In homes, they regulate and protect refrigerators and cookers. They also help save energy in heating systems. And they prevent destruction of computers and telecom equipment by overheating.

This variety of applications is reflected in the wide range of sensor designs: from SMDs through tiny glass-encapsulated types to variants with screw terminals or special thermistors for tube mounting – nothing is impossible. Today, temperatures ranging from around -55 to +1000 °C can be measured.

NTC thermistors can also limit inrush currents. They protect networks and fuses against high pulses and ensure soft starting for powerful motors and transformers.

1-ptc-heaters-250x187 2-multilayer-varistors-250x189 3-ntc-thermistors-250x186

Source: TDK Electronics

Thanks to the innovative injection molding technology for PTC ceramic, FormFit™ heating elements can be fashioned into virtually any shape or form imaginable such as tubes, nozzles or rotor blades of ventilators.

Source: TDK Electronics

Multilayer varistors such as CeraDiode® protect sensitive high-speed interfaces from harmful electrostatic discharges (ESD).

Source: TDK Electronics

Temperature sensors based on NTC thermistors offer fast response times and high reliability for use in automotive air conditioning systems

4 -Murata-NCP15-web 5-Murata-PTC-PRF18-web 6-NTC web

Source: Murata

NTC
Industry's only conductive glue mountable thermistor.

Source: Murata

PTC Thermistors
Detecting overheat conditions in battery packs, motors, power devices and other systems. Protect LED lighting devices from overheating by installing a PTC thermistor.

            Source: Vishay

            NTC

7-PTC-Pellet web 8-Varistors web  

Source: Vishay

PTC Pellet

                 Source: Vishay

                 Varistors

 

 

Linear resistors

Fixed Resistor Technologies

Wirewound (Surface-Mount / Leaded)

Wirewound resistors are made from winding a metal wire on an insulating form, such as a ceramic, plastic, or fiberglass core to the desired resistance value. The wire ends are pressed or brazed to the caps. The outstanding characteristic of this type of resistor is the very high surface temperature, which make them capable for high power dissipation in relation to its size.

Metal Strip / Metal Element (Surface-Mount / Leaded)

These resistors are constructed by using a solid metal alloy which is welded to copper terminals. The resistive element can be trimmed to a requested resistance value by increasing the current path. Finally the resistor body is encapsulated and the terminals plated for solderable connection. Metal Strip resistors are characterized by very low resistance values, tight resistance tolerance, low temperature coefficient (TCR) and low thermal EMF. Metal Strip resistors are commonly used as shunt resistors.

Film (Surface-Mount / Leaded)

Film resistors in general are characterized by a resistive layer on a cylindrical ceramic base. Metal film resistors are often produced by sputtering, while thick film resistors are manufactured using printing processes. Once the terminations are attached, the resistor is trimmed to its final value, mainly by lasers. A final lacquer coat is applied to protect the component from mechanical and climatic stresses. The termination can be leaded or plated . Commonly the resistance value is then marked using the familiar color rings or stamped on in plain text. Film resistors can be used essentially anywhere in the area of low power electronics.

Metal Film (Leaded/MELF)

Cylindrical resistors made by depositing a homogenous resistive element made of a thin conducting film of a metal or metal alloy, such as nichrome, onto a cylindrical ceramic or glass core. The resistance is controlled by cutting a helical groove through the conducting film. Metal film resistors possess very good noise characteristics and low non-linearity. Parameters such as tolerance, temperature coefficient, and stability are excellent. Metal film resistors are available as leaded kinds for through hole mounting and as MELF style SMD devices.

Metal Oxide (Leaded)

A type of cylindrical resistor that uses materials such as ruthenium oxide or tin oxide as the resistive element. These resistors can be excellent high-voltage or high-power devices.

Thick Film (Surface-Mount Chip Resistors/Chip Arrays/Networks)

Surface-mount film chip resistor that carries high power for the part size. For thick film resistors, the ruthenium oxide “film” is applied using traditional screen-printing technology of resistive paste. The final resistive value is reached by laser trimming. Thick film resistors are the high volume resistor component for general purpose use in any electronic application in all industrial segments.

Thin Film (Surface-Mount Chip Resistors/Chip Arrays/Networks)

Surface-mount film chip resistor with a relatively thin resistive element, technically very close related to the cylindrical metal film resistors. Thin film resistors are made by sputtering (vacuum deposition) a resistive material, such as nichrome or tantalum nitride, onto the surface of a substrate. The final resistive value is reached by laser trimming.

Carbon Film (Leaded/MELF)

A general class description for cylindrical resistors made by depositing a carbon film on the surface of a center core insulator. The resistance is controlled by cutting a helical groove through the conducting film.

Metal Foil (Surface Mount / Leaded)

A type of resistor made from photo fabricatinga homogeneous metal in a specific pattern onto a ceramic substrate with high heat conductivity. The unique combination of materials and construction results in a product with unmatched performance characteristics as low temperature coefficient, low thermoelectrical potential difference with reference to copper, and high long-term stability and high reliability.

Composition (Leaded)

With composition resistors, the entire body of the resistor acts as the resistance element. The resistor composition based on carbon or ceramics is pressed together with the termination wires and hardened. Since there is no trimming, the tolerances on delivery are relatively high. The advantages of the composition resistor are its very good high-frequency characteristics and the high capability to overload relative to the component size.

 KOA Europe Shunt  KOA Europe Thick Film 1-Power-Metal-Strip-1 web 

Source: KOA Europe

Shunt Resistors

Source: KOA Europe

Thick Film Resistors

Source: Vishay

Power Metal Strip

 2-Power-Metal-Strip-2 web  3-Shunt-Resistors-1 web  4-Shunt-Resistors-2 wab

Source: Vishay

Power Metal Strip

Source: Vishay

Shunt Resistors

Source: Vishay

Shunt Resistors

 5-Thin-Film-Chip-Resistors-1 web  6-Thin-Film-Chip-Resistors-2 web  7-Thin-Film-Resistor-Arrays web

Source: Vishay

Thin Film Chip Resistors

Source: Vishay

Thin Film Chip Resistors

Source: Vishay

Thin Film Resistor Arrays

 0-MELF-2 web  8-Thick-Film-Chip-Resistors-web  9-Leaded-Film-Resistors web

Source: Vishay

MELF

Source: Vishay

Thick Film Chip Resistors

Source: Vishay

Leaded Film Resistors

 10-Leaded-Wirewound-Resistors-1 web  11-Leaded-Wirewound-Resistors-2 web  

Source: Vishay

Leaded Wirewound Resistors

Source: Vishay

Leaded Wirewound Resistors

 

 

Variables resistors

Beside the Non-Linear and Fixed Linear Resistors there are various products offering a variable resistance range, as potentiometers, trimmers or transducers. These products base on various principals which allow by mechanical construction a variable access on a resistive track. This allows a variable resistance of these devices. The resistive can be based on various film or wirewound technologies.

1-Murata-Trimmer-Potentiomete web   2-Potentiometers 1 web  3-Potentiometers-2 web

Source: Murata

Trimmer Potentiometers allow variable resistance range

Source: Vishay Source: Vishay 

Inductors and transformers

Wire wound

Non-wire wound

Inductors and transformers

Inductors and transformers consist of special ferrite or laminated cores or amorphous/nanocrystalline materials onto which one or several windings of metal wire have been applied. The greater the permeability and the number of windings, the higher the inductance. Alternatively, they may be manufactured in multilayer technology. In this case, conducting patterns are printed onto the individual layers of multilayer ferrite ceramics, which are then stacked to produce a coil.

The simplest inductor designs are chokes with only a single winding. They are used to filter RF interference, especially in communications and power engineering. The designs of these chokes are very diverse and depend on the required current capability and inductance. Thus, miniaturized SMT components are used in communications engineering, whereas large components with laminated cores are widely used in power engineering. Storage chokes are key components for state-of-the-art switch mode power supplies. They store magnetic energy and simultaneously smooth the output currents and voltages.

Transformers have at least two windings on a ferrite, laminated or amorphous/nanocrystalline core. Like chokes, they are also used mainly in communications and power engineering. However, their job is impedance matching and electrical isolation as well as current measurement and power transmission. Transformers also have a very wide range of case types and sizes, as required by their various applications.

Special EMC filters, current-compensated or common-mode chokes are used to assure the electromagnetic compatibility of data and power lines. Their main applications are in CAN bus systems and interfaces in consumer electronics as well as all types of power supplies.

Applications in power engineering:

  • Frequency converters
  • Lamp ballasts
  • Solar inverters
  • Power supplies, switch mode
  • Power supplies, uninterruptable
  • Automotive electronics systems
  • Converters for wind power plants
  • Current measurement devices

Applications in communications engineering:

  • Baluns
  • Electrical isolation in DSL systems
  • RF filters
  • Interface interference suppression in communications electronics
Inductors and Transformers

Source: TDK Electronics

SMT inductors are used to filter signal and data lines. They eliminate RF interference.

2-Inductors-pic-2webTDK Electronics Inductor

Source: TDK Electronics
Transformers for power supplies (left) and DSL applications (right). Transformers ensure electrical isolation, impedance matching and power transmission.

High Power Transformer

Gate Drive Transformer

Current Transformer

Source: Vacuumschmelze

High Power Transformer

Source: Vacuumschmelze

Gate Drive Transformer

Source: Vacuumschmelze

Current Transformer

 

Wire wound

Wirewound Power Inductor

Wirewound Inductor

Source: Murata

Murata wirewound power inductors
featuring low profile, improved current
saturation and low DC resistance

Source: Vacuumschmelze

VAC wirewound inductor

Non wire-wound

Combining ceramic materials and innovative inner electrode design.

7-Murata-inductor-multilayer-

Source: Murata

Combining ceramic materials and innovative inner electrode design.

Capacitors play a key role in almost all electrical and electronic equipment and electrotechnical installations. These versatile components store electric charges and smooth or buffer currents and voltages. They are used to filter and suppress HF interference as well as to decouple signals in telecommunications applications. Capacitors can in principle be subdivided into two groups depending on their construction: those in dry technology and those based on wet technologies with electrolytes. The former include film and ceramic capacitors, while the latter comprise aluminum electrolytic and tantalum capacitors.
Depending on the technology and applications, capacitors are manufactured for voltages from a few to over 10 000 volts. Their capacitance values extend from picofarads to the lower farad range.

Aluminium
Ceramics
MET films
Tantalum

Aluminium

Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors

Aluminium electrolytic capacitors offer very high capacitance values per unit volume over a wide range of rated voltages. They are based on aluminium films whose surface has been enlarged by an etching process. This produces an active surface area that is a multiple of the original film area, allowing capacitances of several 100,000 µF to be reached. Thanks to their low equivalent series resistance (ESR) and series inductance (ESL), these capacitors are distinguished by high ripple current capabilities even at high clock frequencies.

In addition to the very large matrix of voltage and capacitance values, aluminium electrolytic capacitors offer several terminal configurations. These include screw terminals, snap-in and solder-star versions as well as axial and radial designs.

With their high capacitances, these capacitors are used mainly to smooth ripple voltages and to stabilize the voltage in all electrical engineering and electronics application area.

Applications:

  • Frequency converters
  • Converters in wind power plants
  • Solar Inverters
  • Uninterruptible power supplies
  • Power supplies
  • Medical engineering equipment
  • Lamp ballasts
  • Automotive electronics systems
  • Consumer electronics and telecommunications equipment and systems

Alu-Screw-webAlu-Snap-in-web

 Alu-Automotive-4pin webAlu-Automotive-axia-web

1 -Murata-PAC web

Source: TDK Electronics

Aluminium electrolytic capacitors in screw-terminal or snap-in versions are used mainly in converters for industrial electronics. They are characterized by their long operating life and high ripple current capability.

Source: TDK Electronics

Aluminium electrolytic capacitors for automotive electronics. These types offer a vibrational strength of up to 40 g and can be used in a wide temperature range from -55 to 150°C

Source: Murata


High capacitance conductive polymer capacitors

 Polymer-LF-Web

Source: Nichicon

Polymer LF

 BW-THT-Alu-Web

Source: Nichicon

THT Alu

 CD-SMD-Alu-Web

Source: Nichicon

CD SMD Alu

 Double-Layer-Alu-Web

Source: Nichicon

Double Layer Alu

 FP-Polymer-Web

Source:Nichicon

FP Polymer

 GX-Snap-In-Alu-Web

Source: Nichicon

GX Snap In Alu

 

Ceramics

Ceramic capacitors are available for well-defined frequency ranges with a defined temperature coefficient (Class 1 capacitors) or for smoothing and suppressing of noise frequencies (class-2 capacitors), e.g. used in power supplies.

Multilayer ceramic chip capacitors (MLCC) are the most widely used capacitors in electronics. In addition, ceramic capacitors are available in different special shapes and constructions as to be named as Embedded-, Bonding-, Feed-Thru-, Anti-Noise-, Low-Acoustic Noise-, Power-, High Frequency-, Hi-Q, Low-ESR-, Low-ESL, Safety- or High Frequency Capacitors.

Main applications:

  • Equipment and systems of information and communications electronics
  • Consumer electronics equipment
  • Automotive electronics systems
  • Noise suppression and stabilization circuits

NR0361E

2 -Murata-Capacitors web

ceramic capacitors CER-Web

 

 

Source: Murata

Source: Murata

Source: TDK Electronics

 

MET films

Film Capacitors are used in almost all electronic circuits. They store energy and discharge it when needed. Important applications for film capacitors include electronic filtering for linear and switching power supplies; decoupling and bypass of electronic signals for circuits and circuit boards; and frequency control, timing and conditioning of electronic signals for a broad range of applications.

Film capacitors are constructed of electrodes (the capacitor plates) with plastic dielectric material in between. The type of electrode used determines whether the capacitor is a metalized film or a film/foil type.
Metalized capacitors have a self-healing behavior as an key characteristic by its construction. Self healing is the ability to recover after a dielectric breakdown. Due to their construction, very thick electrodes, film/foil capacitors can carry higher currents than metalised types, but are much larger in volume. These capacitors cannot recover after a breakdown.Therefore in some constructions double side metalised plastic film is used as electrode to replace the foil. The plastic material has only the function of carrier: the self healing properties are maintained and the current carrying capability is increased a lot in comparison with single metalized types. Depending on the AC voltage in the application, single or series constructions are used. In a series construction two or more sections are placed internally in series in one capacitor. Single section capacitors are normally used for products with an AC rating up to 300 Vac. Series constructions are used for higher voltages. The end connection of the capacitor cell to the outside circuit is realized by metal sprayed end connections wherein lead wires or tabs are welded.

Finally the capacitor cells can be protected for severe environmental conditions or to withstand passive flammability. Encapsulation with epoxy materials in plastic boxes is common used for fixed outline dimensions. Epoxy dipped capacitors have a more rounded and easy to handle shape. All these encapsulations are flame retardant materials fulfilling the UL 94 classification system.
Axial types are typically of the wrapped end construction. An extra wrapped film and epoxy at the end connections protects the cell. For high power film capacitors as well aluminum housings in a can-format are common.

Main applications:

  • Power supplies
  • Systems and installations for power factor correction
  • High voltage DC (HVDC) transmission systems
  • Inverters for solar energy installations
  • Inverters for traction applications
  • Equipment and systems of consumer electronics and communications technology
  • Ballasts for LED lighting systems
  • Ballasts for xenon lamps in motor vehicles
  • EMC filters

1 Film-Caps-DC-Link-web

 

2 Film-CapacitorsEMI-Suppression-web 3 Films-Caps-various-kinds-web

Source: Vishay

Film Caps (DC-Link)

Source: Vishay

Film Capacitors (EMI Suppression)

Source: Vishay

Film Caps (various kinds)

4 Film-Caps-various-expoxy-kinds-web 5 klk1384n Web 6 klk1849-w Web

Source: Vishay

Film Caps (various epoxy kinds)

Source: TDK Electronics

 

Source: TDK Electronics

 

  7 kmk0766d Web  
  Source: TDK Electronics  

 

Tantalum

Tantalum Capacitors are used in various electronic applications for buffering and filtering which are having a focus on high reliability, long life time, high environmental temperatures or smaller size, as automotive electronic or power supplies, mobile phones, 3g/4G modems, laptop PCs or medical equipment, to name just a few. Tantalum capacitors are electrolytic capacitors based on pressed Tantalum metal powder then sintered and attached to a tantalum wire to form the anode. The dielectric is set by an electrochemical acid process which oxidizes on the surface. The cathode of Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is created during a high temperature process and is connected to by a graphitic carbon and a silver layer to the cathode termination. Tantalum capacitors have the highest capacitance to volume ration of all capacitors due to their specific monolithic construction and as well as mechanically very robust component structure. They are available in various packages as chip, molded SMD or leaded dipped or leaded axial.

Polymer Tantalum capacitors are using conductive polymers as cathode materials; else the construction is comparable to the MnO2 equivalent. Their specific construction show ESR values in the range as known from multi layer chip capacitors (MLCC).

Wet Tantalum have a special constructions based either on Tantalum foils and a liquate electrolyte or on a Tantalum pellet with a liquid electrolyte, both with a cathode-case made out of Tantalum in a hermetic sealed construction. These products are used for applications with highest requirements on reliability, quality and robustness and temperature performance in military and industrial areas. Due to their construction operation voltage even significantly beyond 150V can be realized.

Main applications:

  • Automotive electronics systems
  • Equipment and systems of information and communications electronics
  • Consumer electronics equipment
  • Voltage stabilisation circuits
1-Tantalum-1 SMD-Molded-Tantalum-web 2-Tantalum-2 -SMD-Molded-Tantalum-web 3-Tantalum-3 SMD-Molded-Tantalum-web

Source: Vishay

SMD Molded Tantalum

Source: Vishay

SMD Molded Tantalum

Source: Vishay

SMD Molded Tantalum

4-Tantalum-4 SMD-MAP-Tantalum-Chips-web 5-Tantalum-5 SMD-Conformal-Coated-Tantalum-web 6-Tantalum-6 Loaded-dipped-Tantalum-web

Source: Vishay

SMD MAP Tantalum Chips

Source: Vishay

SMD Conformal Coated Tantalum

Source: Vishay

Leaded dipped Tantalum

7-Tantalum-7 Leaded-axial-Tantalum-web 8-Tantalum-8 -Wet-tantalum-leaded-web  

Source: Vishay

Leaded axial Tantalum

Source: Vishay

Wet Tantalum (leaded)

 

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